volume: 41, issue:
The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of wildlife-vehicle collisions (WVC) based on the animal species, and to deepen the knowledge of temporal patterns of vehicle collisions with roe deer and wild boar. The study analyses the data from police reports on vehicle collisions with animals on state roads, by date and time, section of road, and animal species over a 5-year period (2012–2016). These data were analysed to determine the temporal dynamics of vehicle collisions with roe deer and wild boar by month, time of day, and moon phase. On the state roads in the Dinaric area, roe deer are most commonly involved in vehicle collisions (70.1% of all collisions), followed by wild boar (11.0%). Other large species involved in collisions were fallow deer (4.8%), brown bear (1.8%), red deer (0.9%), grey wolf (0.7%), and European mouflon (0.5%), respectively. Most collisions with roe deer occurred in the period April–August, with reduced frequency during autumn and winter. For wild boar, there was no association between month and frequency of collisions. At the annual level, collisions with roe deer were significantly higher during night (37%) and twilight (41%) than during the day (22%). For wild boar, most collisions occurred during twilight (26%) and night (72%), although the difference between these two periods was not statistically significant. For roe deer, collisions had no association with lunar phase, though wild boar collisions during twilight (dawn or dusk) were more common during twilight periods on days with less moonlight. Since vehicle collisions with wildlife showed certain temporal patterns, these should be taken into consideration in developing statistical models of spatial WVC patterns, and also in planning strategies and countermeasures to mitigate WVC issues.