Productivity and Cost Analysis of Three Timber Extraction Methods on Steep Terrain in Thailand

Copyright © 2017 by Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering
volume: 39, issue: 2
pp: 9
  • Kaakkurivaara Nopparat
  • Kaakkurivaara, Tomi
Article category:
Original scientific paper
manpower, mule, log chute, cost-efficiency




Steep terrain harvesting in Thailand has low productivity because of the shortage of suitable
logging extraction methods. Common methods involve extraction using manpower on steep
slopes where machines cannot operate. This study compared the utilization of log chutes against
manpower and mule methods with regard to productivity and cost-efficiency in the same logging
compartment in Northern Thailand. The extraction methods were divided into work elements
and data were collected based on described work cycles. The log chutes clearly had the highest
productivity (2.29 m3/h) compared to the other methods. The hourly cost was lowest using
manpower and the highest cost was using the log chute. However, the unit cost indicated the
most economic method was the log chute (THB 72.40/m3) and the least was using mule extraction.
From a logging contractor point of view, the log chute method helps reduce the number of
working days during the harvesting season and provides a higher profit for business.


Web of Science Impact factor (2022): 3.200
Five-years impact factor: 3.000

Quartile: Q1 - Forestry

Subject area

Agricultural and Biological Sciences