Grajewski Sylwester M., PhD

Bearing Capacity Standards for Forest Roads Constructed Using Various Technologies from Mechanically and Chemically Stabilised Aggregate

volume: 42, issue:

Forest roads are essential for adequate forest management and environmental protection. They enable tourism and recreation activity, while at the same time playing a very important role in fire protection. When open to the local traffic, they significantly supplement the public traffic networks. Costs of constructing permanent roads in forested areas are considerable, because they need to have adequate bearing capacity. Forest roads are predominantly constructed using natural or anthropogenic aggregate stabilised mechanically and chemically. A tangible parameter verifying the proper construction of road structure is provided by its bearing capacity, i.e. the capacity of the pavement to carry loads generated by traffic without excessive strains hindering normal use of the pavement or reducing its durability. Some forest road networks are also constructed as temporary roads composed of cheaper aggregates. It seems reasonable to assume different bearing capacity standards for such roads than for permanent roads.

The aim of the studies presented in this paper was to develop bearing capacity standards for forest roads constructed using various technologies. The adopted research hypothesis assumes that each of the analysed technologies is characterised by a different bearing capacity required during road construction inspections. An example of such a structure may be provided by the so-called geotextile mattress and crushed stone constructed on wetland soils. When developing the standards, the analyses included the predicted traffic intensity, assumed operation time before rehabilitation is required, soil conditions and the type of construction material.

Bearing capacity of the testing road sections was assessed based on values of strain moduli calculated from the static plate load tests (VSS). As a result, bearing capacity standards were obtained for structures constructed using aggregates and chemical stabilisers as well as geotextiles potentially facilitating reduction of the layer thickness without deterioration of road durability.

Evaluation of Light Falling Weight Deflectometer for In Situ Measurement of Secondary Deformation Modulus of Various Forest Road Pavements

volume: 44, issue:

Roads in forests are necessary for proper forest management and active protection of the natural environment. They facilitate tourism and recreation and have a very important function in firefighting. The cost of building roads in forest areas is considerable, even when relatively cheap materials such as aggregates of natural or anthropogenic origin are used. Therefore, any road investment must be well prepared and executed. Bearing capacity and compaction are among the most important and frequently used geotechnical parameters in road construction. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of predicting the value of the secondary deformation modulus E2 (obtained from measurements with a static plate load test – PLT) based on measurements with a light falling weight deflectometer (LFWD) Zorn, type ZFG 3000 GPS with a drop weight of 10 kg. The regression analysis included 245 results of bearing capacity measurements carried out on 46 forest road sections with various road pavements. Different regression models were tested: linear, logarithmic, polynomial, exponential and power models, excluding polynomials of fourth and higher degree. Prediction of E2 (PLT) values from dynamic deformation modulus Evd (LFWD) values is possible. However, the reported unsatisfactory strength of the relationship between the two parameters is associated with a high risk of error (r=0.73, R2=0.54, Se=80.37 MN·m-2). Neither the use of more complex non-linear regression models nor the use of multiple regression by introducing an additional estimator in the form of the s/v ratio significantly improved the estimation results. The quality of the prediction of E2 values is not constant. It varies depending on the type of forest road pavements, the use of geosynthetic pavement reinforcements and the type of road subgrade. The study also found that the quality of E2 prediction can be improved by limiting the range of tested Evd values upwards. It is advisable to continue this type of research, as the results obtained could be the basis for developing national standards for the application of LFWD to control the bearing capacity and compaction of forest road surfaces in the future.


Web of Science Impact factor (2022): 3.200
Five-years impact factor: 3.000

Quartile: Q1 - Forestry

Subject area

Agricultural and Biological Sciences