volume: 39, issue: 1
In addition to safety, small hand-operated forestry machines can be criticised for affecting the
operators’ health, especially because of high levels of exhaust gas emissions, noise and vibrations.
In this study, gas emissions, noise and hand-arm vibrations (HAV) levels have been measured
on chainsaws, hedge cutters and blowers fuelled with two different types of fuel: a commercial
RON 95 gasoline with the addition of 2% of synthetic oil suitable for two-stroke engines and,
as an alternative, a specific advanced mixture available on the market, based on alkylate gasoline.
For two different running conditions, i.e. with the engine at idle speed and when executing a
typical working routine (maximum speed with load), tests were carried out for:
Þ gas emissions, using a gas analyser, for measuring the volatile organic compounds (VOC)
Þ noise, using a sound level meter, to record the levels at both of the operator’s ears
Þ HAV, using a tri-axial accelerometer fixed on the handgrip(s) of the machines.
The results demonstrated that, when using the alkylate fuel, the VOC emissions were reduced,
in the considered machines, from 23 to over 77%, while for noise and HAV, the differences in
level were not statistically significant. The present study confirms that the reduction in the
amount of emissions can be remarkably improved by adopting advanced fuels that lead to a
more efficient combustion process.
volume: 40, issue: 1
Stora Enso Wood Supply Finland (WSF) was certified to the ISO 50001 Energy Efficiency
Management System standard in 2015. At Stora Enso WSF, the goal is to improve energy
efficiency by 4% by 2020 from 2015. Improving the energy efficiency of wood procurement
(i.e. logging and timber trucking) enterprises is currently one of the main focus areas for energy
efficiency development at Stora Enso WSF. In order to clarify its state-of-the-art in the
business of wood procurement enterprises at Stora Enso WSF, logging and timber-trucking
entrepreneurs were interviewed in November and December 2017. The survey data consisted
of 25 logging and 25 timber-trucking entrepreneurs. The coverage rate of both entrepreneur
groups was 73.5% in the survey. The results indicated that timber-trucking enterprises highlight
more energy efficiency and fuel efficiency than logging enterprises. For instance, the
timber-trucking entrepreneurs underscored more energy efficiency in their acquisition decisions
of new vehicles and the greater role of fuel efficiency in the energy-efficient business than
logging entrepreneurs during 2016 and 2017. Furthermore, the survey results revealed that
logging and trucking enterprises can improve energy efficiency in their business by organizing
more energy efficiency education (i.e. economical and anticipated driving training) for
their machine operators and truck drivers. There is a positive attitude towards energy efficiency
among both logging and timber-trucking entrepreneurs. This creates a solid background
to deepen and continue energy-effective work in the wood supply chain between the enterprises
and Stora Enso WSF in the future.
volume: 40, issue:
Climate change affects forest ecosystems, impacting timber production and eco-services. Conversely, sustainable forest management has been identified as a means to help mitigate carbon dioxide emissions, a greenhouse gas and contributor to climate change, while also maximizing multiuse benefits through close-to-nature silviculture. In this study, a life cycle assessment was performed on forest harvesting operations at three research sites to provide real-world understanding of the selected environmental impacts associated with harvesting systems typical of Germany: motor-manual (chainsaw and forest tractor), semi-mechanized (single-grip harvester, chainsaw, and forwarder), and fully-mechanized (single-grip harvester and forwarder). Environmental impact categories assessed included greenhouse gas emissions, particulate matter emissions, and non-renewable energy consumption. Results from the three research sites were estimated on a machine basis. The semi-mechanized system resulted in the lowest environmental impact, the majority of which was attributed to felling and processing operations. Next, the environmental impacts were estimated for a complete rotation period and compared amongst the different harvesting systems. According to results, semi-mechanized harvesting systems had the lowest impact over the full rotation period as well as for thinning treatments when compared to motor-manual and fully-mechanized systems. The fully-mechanized system performed the best for final felling treatments. Considering variability between the research sites as well as the system boundary assessed, a diversified approach to harvesting operations may be considered, integrating semi-mechanized and fully-mechanized systems for different treatments throughout the rotation period.