volume: 37, issue: .2
volume: 38, issue: 2
volume: 42, issue:
Ground contact pressures exerted by elements of the machine chassis on the ground in the forest are associated with the machine impact on the soil during its operation. In the case of a crawler system, determining the ground contact pressure appears simple, which is not entirely true. The aim of the study was to analyze the loads on the ground (forest soil) exerted by the MHT 8002HV crawler harvester chassis. The measurements were made in Forest School Enterprise in Kostelec nad Černými Lesy, Central Bohemia Region in the Czech Republic, on brown soil made of clay on stony formations, fresh mixed mountain forest (FMMF), with the use of a hydraulic scale when extending the harvester crane forward along and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the machine. The calculations were carried out with a simulated load of the crane on the tree in question, assuming that the impact on the ground of the crawler system is heterogeneous and that the point impact comes from the crawler support wheels. As it was shown, the average ground contact pressures under the crawler track of the analyzed harvester generally do not exceed 70 kPa. The crane extension with a simulated load, which would have caused the crawler track to act on the ground with an average pressure exceeding 70 kPa, was limited by machine stability. On the other hand, high ground contact pressures may occur under a more loaded section of the crawler track if the active length of the crawler track is shortened. As it was shown in the case of a weak track tension, the course of ground contact pressures exerted on the soil deviates from the assumed usually homogeneous impact over the entire length of the crawler.
volume: 43, issue:
Wood harvesting with the use of wheeled harvesters is now common in Polish and Czech forests. While moving in the forest, the wheels of these machines affect the forest soil and the extent of this impact is interesting. The paper presents the results of measurements of the changes that occur in the soil on the operational trails after the timber harvesting using the Entracon Sioux EH30 thinning harvester. The measurements were taken on fragments of three operational trails, in and between the ruts and at a distance of 1.0 m off the trail. An impact penetrometer was used to measure the penetration resistance, soil samples were collected to determine the bulk density and moisture content, and soil deformations on the trail were measured with a profile meter. Unit pressures exerted by harvester wheels on the ground were determined. It was shown that in the places where the harvester wheels pass, even of a small weight (5.73 tons, 8 wheels) and with unit pressures of the wheels on the ground <50 kPa, changes in soil parameters occurred. A statistically significant increase in penetration resistance in relation to the control occurred at a depth of up to 35 cm, while at a depth of up to 5 cm the increase was more than 2-fold. There was also a slight decrease in soil moisture content (up to 7.9%) and an increase (up to 8.4%) in bulk density in the ruts, while rut depths were small and reached 4 cm. As it was shown, the impact penetrometer, simple in design, which was assumed to be used for measurements, and which is not used in this type of research in forestry, despite its limitations, can be used to determine the compactness of the soil and its changes resulting from machine work.
volume: 44, issue:
The share of the annual volume of harvester-produced timber in Czech forest bioeconomy has increased in the last decades. To estimate under-bark timber volume, harvester systems allow choosing between two different bark deduction models – diameter band (DBM) and linear model. However, linear models were not calibrated for the conditions of Czech forestry. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop, for local conditions in Czechia, linear functions for estimating the double bark thickness of two groups of broadleaved species (beech and oak) and to test their viability based on real harvest data. To create the linear functions, official Czech cubing tables were used. Data from real harvests were gathered from fifteen harvesters. A sample containing 4995 logs belonging to the beech group was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the Paired Wilcoxon tests. The mean double bark thickness for beech group was 15.1 mm (polynomial and linear model). For oak group, it was 15.48 mm (polynomial) or 15.49 mm (linear). The results of real harvests for beech group revealed that the mean double bark thickness estimated by the polynomial function was 7.08 mm. The linear function estimates were closer to the value estimated by the polynomial (6.84 mm) than DBM estimates (6.68 mm). Therefore, we can state that the newly developed linear models can be used in fully mechanized harvesting instead of manual bark deduction methods in Czechia.