volume: 28, issue: 1
volume: 43, issue:
In Slovenia, torrent areas and forest roads are being regulated and built mostly in steep, erosion-prone areas. In addition to the geometry of extrapolated works, calculating bulk factors is key for estimating haulage masses. We have determined bulk factors for compact carbonate rock, mixed soil, and carbonate deposits. Each construction site was recorded with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) before the excavation and after every 4±2 m3 of excavated material. The average point cloud density was 9535 points/m2. We processed the point clouds from each construction site and determined the difference in volume between the volume of excavated area and the volume of deposited material. The average bulk factor for compact carbonate rock is 1.42, 1.20 for mixed soil and 1.15 for carbonate deposits (calculated for fully loaded eight-wheeled truck). The calculated bulk factors for soils and carbonate deposits match with the already established values, while the factor for compact rock is 20% lower than the factor currently in use by the Slovenian forest engineers.