volume: 33, issue: 1
volume: 32, issue: 2
volume: 32, issue: 2
volume: 29, issue: 2
volume: 28, issue: 1
volume: 35, issue: 2
volume: 36, issue: 2
volume: 37, issue: 1
volume: 41, issue: 1
A chain-flail delimber-debarker-chipper (CFDDC) was adapted for treating smaller trees than normal by replacing the standard flails with lighter ones, and by reducing flail drum rotation speed. The machine produced 16 full containers (24 t each) for the standard configuration and 24 full containers for the innovative one. For each container the researchers measured: original tree mass, chip mass, time consumption and fuel use. Results indicated that the innovative setting accrued a 12% improvement on fiber recovery compared with the standard setting (control). At the same time, productivity increased by 20% and fuel consumption was reduced by 30%. Product quality was largely unaffected, with bark content remaining below the 1% threshold specification. If at all, product quality was improved through the reduction of fine particles, possibly derived from less diffused fraying. These results have triggered the real scale adoption of the new setting by contractors who participated in the study. The success of the innovative treatment is likely explained by its better alignment with the weaker structure of small trees from low-yielding stands.
volume: 41, issue:
Close-to-nature (CTN) forestry offers many advantages, but makes management more complex and generally results in lower harvesting productivity and higher harvesting cost. While the higher harvesting cost of CTN is widely acknowledged, few ever consider the potential impact on operator workload, as the harvesting task becomes more complex. This study aimed to determine the mental workload of harvester operators under two silvicultural regimes: »pure conifer« stand and »mixwood« stand. In total, 13 harvester operators with varying experience levels were monitored for work performance and mental workload when operating a harvester simulator in two virtual stands designed according to the above-mentioned silvicultural regimes. Mental workload was assessed using the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) interview method and heart rate variability measurements, during two 30-minute test sessions performed in the »pure conifer« and the »mixwood« stand, respectively. As expected, operating in a more diversified »mixwood« stand resulted in a marked productivity loss, estimated between 40 and 57%. The study also confirmed the increased aggravation of mental demand, effort and frustration experienced by the operators when passing from the »pure conifer« stand to the »mixwood« stand. Such increase in mental workload was independent of the age and experience of the operators. Results can be used to paint a more holistic picture of CTN forestry and its implications for harvester operators. Besides increasing the number of subjects being monitored, future studies should focus on live forest operations.
volume: 42, issue:
Cable yarding is a well establish technology for the extraction of timber in steep terrain. However, it is encumbered with relatively low productivity and high costs, and as such this technology needs to adapt and progress to remain viable. The development of biomass as a valuable byproduct, and the availability of processors to support yarder operations, lend themselves to increasing the level of whole-tree extraction. Double-hitch carriages have been developed to allow for full suspension of whole-tree and tree-length material. This study compared a standard single-hitch to a double-hitch carriage under controlled conditions, namely in the same location using the same yarder with downhill extraction. As expected, the double-hitch carriage took longer to load up (+14%), but was able to achieve similar productivity (10–11 m3 per productive machine hour) through increased inhaul speed (+15%). The importance of this study is that it demonstrates both the physical and economic feasibility of moving to whole-tree extraction using the double-hitch type carriage for longer corridors, for settings with limited deflection, or areas with lower tolerance for soil disturbance.
volume: 44, issue:
Yarding whole trees is the most efficient way of extracting timber in steep terrain and allows reaping the combined benefits of mechanization and biomass recovery. In downhill yarding, however, whole-tree extraction is associated with a greater risk of loosening rocks or debris by the incoming loads as they bounce around along the extraction corridor. That may also cause damage to the cables and anchors by corresponding shock loads, ultimately endangering the yarder and its crew. To avoid these risks, »double-hitch carriages« can be employed. They combine a conventional motorized dropline carriage with a secondary carriage (»trailer«), equipped with a further, independent dropline winch. Thus, loads can be attached at two points and transported fully suspended above the ground in a horizontal position.
Operation of these carriages may not be limited to the »horizontal« mode: the main carriage could also be operated without trailer (»single« mode), or separate loads may be attached to the two droplines (»double« mode), but their impact on the efficiency and economy of yarding operations is yet unknown. Therefore, the present study investigated how these modes affect the productivity and cost of downhill whole tree yarding. To this end, a classic time and motion study was conducted during a salvage logging operation in Northern Italy under a strictly controlled experimental design.
Average productivity (18.2±7.2 to 24.5±15.4 m³ PSH0-1 merchantable volume per productive system hour excluding delays) and extraction cost (18 to 20 Euro m-³) did not differ significantly between treatments, while load composition and time consumption by task did. More (2.2±0.5) pieces per load were yarded under the »double«, than under the »single« (1.4±0.5) and »horizontal« (1.1±0.3) treatments. Inhaul speed (3.1±0.6 m s-1) was significantly higher under the »horizontal« treatment, which compensated for increased loading time derived from attaching the load at least at one point outside the corridor. Unloading took significantly longer under the »double« treatment, as loads had to be dropped successively due to the confined conditions on the landing. Though slowest (2.5±0.9 m s-1) during inhaul, the »single« treatment exhibited none of the other treatments disadvantages and larger loads could be accumulated due to partial suspension. From an economic viewpoint, the »horizontal« mode may only be warranted over yarding distances substantially beyond average. On shorter ones, it must be justified by other reasons, such as minimizing product contamination, soil disturbance or excessive strain to the skyline when the terrain profile impedes sufficient ground clearance.